May 2, 2021

Pages 5643-5671
Whole Number 197


by Russell E. Bidlack

European settlement in what became South Carolina can be traced to 1671 when a group of Englishmen came to what they called Charles Town. They were soon joined along the Ashley River by Dutch families from New York and others directly from Holland. During the following century, settlers came from Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Switzerland, and Germany. It was in 1713 that southern Carolina was separated from North Carolina, and it was recognized as an English royal colony in 1723. South Carolina was the eighth state to enter the Union, in 1788.

In 1769, the province had been divided into seven judicial districts. by 1798, the nine districts then existing were divided into twenty-four, and further divisions brought the number to thirty by the time of the Civil War.In 1868, these " districts" were officially called counties. For the 1860 census, all census takers used the term "district," and we do so, likewise, in this transcription.

When the first U.S. census was taken in 1790, 13 heads of households named Sparks, (or Sparkes) were recorded in South Carolina. (See page 10 of the June 1953 issue of the Quarterly.) We can be sure that many of the Sparkses appearing on the 1860 census of South Carolina were descendants of the 13 identified in 1790.

With the compilation that follows, we continue a major, long-term research and publication effort to transcribe for the Sparks Quarterly the names and personal data for individuals named Sparks who appeared on the 1860 census of the United States. As we noted in the March 1995 issue of the Quarterly, where we published the record of Sparkses appearing on the 1860 census of Indiana, this will be a formidable task--our nation's population then totaled nearly 31 1/2 million. Only through the use of indexes prepared by others could this compilation be possible. It was not until the September 1999 issue that we presented a record of Sparkses in another state in 1860, that being Texas. For the 1860 census of South Carolina, we have used an index compiled by Jonnie P. Arnold, published in 1982.

As most of our readers are probably aware, we have published a record of all the Sparkses found on extant census records preserved by the National Archives in Washington, D.C., from that of 1790 through that of 1850. A brief history of census taking in the United States may be appropriate to include here before describing the nature of that taken in 1860, the year- prior to the beginning of the Civil War, or, as those whose names we include here doubtless called it, the War Between the States, or the War of Northern Agression.

The first federal census was taken in 1790 in accordance with a provision in Article I, Section 2, of the U. S. Constitution. The purpose was to determine how the membership of the House of Representatives should be divided among the states, based on the population of each. This remains today as the basic reason for the census being taken every ten years, but questions have been added to the forms over the years in order to obtain additional statistical data. The marshals of the U. S. judicial districts were assigned responsibility for taking not only the 1790 census, but those that followed until 1850, when responsibility was assigned to the Department of Interior. It was not until 1960 that the U.S. mails were used to assist in the compilation.

It must be kept in mind when searching for genealogical information in census records that it was not until 1850 that anyone other than the head of each household was recorded by name, followed by the sex and age category of each member of his or her household.

The printed forms, called "schedules," provided for taking the 1860 census, mea- sured 12! by 17! inches; they were printed "back-to-back," with lined spaces for 40 entries on each side. (There was a separate schedule for slaves.) Each page contained blank spaces for the township or town to be filled in, as well as the - name of the county, the nearest post office, and the date on which the census taker made his call. Each page was also to be signed by the census taker.

In 1860, as in 1850, the basis for recording individuals continued to be by house- hold within a designated geographical area. While the word "household" was often considered to be synonymous with "family", a "household" could include not only a spouse and children, it could include, also, employees, relatives needing a home, orphans learning a trade, etc. It was not until the census for 1880 that a space was provided to indicate the relationship of each household member to the head of that household.

The size of a census district was determined on the basis of a population of about 20,000. The census taker was directed to locate each household in his district, even if consisting of only one person, and therein to interview a responsible member who could provide answers to the questions asked on the census form. Besides recording the name of each household member, the census taker was directed to add his / her sex, color, age, and place of birth. The occupation of free males over age 15 was to be noted; that of employed women was also to be included, although census takers were often unsure whether the work of a housekeeper (wife or other adult female) qualified as an occupation. Real estate owners were required not only to report the value of their land, as they had for the 1850 census, but in 1860 they were to reveal, also, the value of their personal property, including any slaves that they owned. The marital states of adults was to be recorded, and marriages performed during the previous census year were to be noted. by "previous census year" was meant between June 1, 1859, and May 31,1860.

It was assumed that the census taker would begin his canvas of the area assigned to him on June first, and on each day thereafter the information he recorded was to be as it had been on June first. Thus, if a household member died after 1 Jun1860, he/she was to be included, as though the census taker had arrived on June first. All ages were to be calculated as of June 1, 1860. A baby born after June first was to be omitted, but if born within the previous census year (June 1, 1859, to May 31, 1860), he/she was to be included, of course, but with his/her age calculated in months.

No provision was made to identify on the census form the member of the household who provided the census taker with information, a fact that may account for some of the errors found on censuses. A wife might, for example, not recall where her husband had said he was born, or the value of his personal property.

Space was provided on the form (schedule) to report that a child had attended school during the past census year. Persons over 20 years of age who could not read and write any language were to be identified, as was anyone who was deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, or a convict. The census taker in 1860, as in 1850, was directed to ask in each household whether a member had died during the past census year (June 1, 1859, to May 31, 1860); if so, information about him/her was to be recorded on a separate form called the "mortality schedule."

The census taker in 1860, as in 1850, was directed to assign a sucessive number to each "Dwelling House" in the order of his visitations. He was also to assign a/ number to each separate family or household if two or more were living in the, same house. These numbers often assist today's researcher in determining how near neighbors and other households were living to each other.

Although a blank space was provided for a page number to be supplied for each schedule as it was completed, when these were assembled by state and county at the Department of the Interior, an overall numbering system was used. It is these page numbers that we have copied in this transcription.

While the directions to census takers were fairly detailed, the Assistant Marshals as they were called differed in their degree of exactitude in following those directions. The quality of their handwriting varied greatly, of course, as did the blackness of their ink. In most instances, the census taker would copy the information he had obtained in each household after he returned to his home. There are known in- stances where a wife performed this task for her husband, and it was the final copies of the schedules that were usually sent to Washington. Each time a record is copied, of course, there is opportunity for error.

In recording names of household members in 1860, the census taker was directed as follows: "The names are to be written, beginning with the father and mother; or if either, or both, be dead, begin with some other ostensible head of the family; to be followed, as far as practicable, with the name of the oldest child residing at home, then the next oldest, and so on to the youngest, then the other inmates, lodgers and boarders, laborers, domestics, and servants." Regretfully, because microfilmed copies of the originals must be used from which to transcribe census records today, some of the microfilming has been poorly done.

As will be seen in the following transcription of Sparks households, census takers, usually recorded both the individual's first and last name, including middle initials, but some took the easy way out and gave only initials for first names. The spelling of names, especially unusual names, often reflects a census taker's use of his imagination. The name "Sparks" was common enough, however, that its spelling was usually written correctly, although the alternative "Spark" or "Sparkes" may or may not have been the choice of the family involved. We use question marks, enclosed in brackets, following a name for which the spelling is uncertain.

In copying the information found on the 1860 census for a household headed by a : person named Sparks, your editor has included all members, whether or not their name(s) was/were Sparks. Likewise, where one or more persons named Sparks appear in households headed by someone with a different name, those entire households have also been transcribed (except where a Sparks is listed in a hotel or large institution with persons having a variety of surnames).The "other names" in small households often provide clues for discovering family relationships.

In order to make effective use of our space, data from the 1860 census of South Carolina is presented here under each district in the following sequence: the geographical subdivision where given, e. g, the name of a town, the local post office, followed by the page number and the name of the census taker, with the date on which he recorded visiting the household. The line below these data begins with the number that he assigned to the dwelling house and, second, to the household (or family). This is followed by the individual names of members, and the age of each with his/her sex, (M or F). Census takers in 1860 were directed to leave blank the space provided for color "in all cases where the person is white, " but " where the person is black, insert the letter B; if mulatto, insert M. " The entry for "Profession, Occupation, or Trade" follows, if filled in, followed by the dollar value of real estate owned, and the value of personal property. This is followed by place of birth. Census takers were instructed here to write the state, territory, or country. They were permitted to abbreviate these place names, and we find a great variety of such abbreviations. For this transcription, we use the two-letter abbreviation for each state as has been established by the U. S. Post Office.

The answers to questions regarding whether individuals had been married within the previous census year, whether attended school in the previous year, whether able to read and write (if over the age of 20), and whether deaf and dumb, blind, etc., have been transcribed here in notes following each household.

A total of 118 persons named Sparks (including Spark and Sparkes) have been found on the 1860 census of South Carolina. There were 25 households headed by a Sparks, in which all but 12 of the 118 were listed. These 12 were living in 7 households headed by individuals not named Sparks.

Among the 25 Sparkses heading households, 7 owned slaves. (Slaves were counted in the census because each was computed to be 3/5 of a free person in determining the number of each state's Congressional delegation. ) The record compiled for counting slaves was different from that for the free population, but here we have placed the list for each owner following that of the owner's own household. The information compiled for slaves did not include their names; the schedules provided to census takers included spaces for only the age, sex, and color (B for black and M for mulatto) of each. If a slave was a "fugitive from the state" or had been "manumitted," this fact was to be noted, as was for any that might be "deaf & dumb, blind, insane or idiotic." ("Manumitted" meant "freed from bondage.")

A record of the Sparkses found on the 1850 census of South Carolina was reported in the December 1986 issue of the Sparks Quarterly, Whole No.136, beginning on page 2993. A record of Sparkses found on earlier censuses for South Carolina has been published in the following issues: 1790 on page 10 of the issue for June 1953, Whole No.2; those for 1800, 1810, 1820, and 1830 appeared in the issue for September 1978, Whole No.103, beginning on page 2032 and ending on page 2035; that for 1840 appeared in the issue for June 1971, Whole No.74, pages 1413-14.

For the compilation of the present record of Sparkses found on the 1860 census of South Carolina, your editor has rented nineteen rolls of microfilm from the National Archives "Rental Program."

Page Surname First Name Age Sex Occupation Worth Birthplace
Abbeville District, South Carolina --1860 Census
Post Office: Due West Corner
Page 152. Census taken by T. A. Rogers on September 10, 1860
2244-2206 Wensole Jno. H. 30 M Bricklayer $2200 NC
  Alley Thos. 20 M "   SC
  Sparks Thos. 15 M Day laborer   SC
  Sparks Miles 14 M "   SC
  McCelvy James A. 30 M Carpenter $1,000 -$500 SC
  Bost Harvey 23 M "   SC
[Note: We have identified neither the above Thomas Sparks nor Miles Sparks; although they were shown to have been born in South Carolina, their names have not been found on the 1850 census of South Carolina. In fact, no one named Sparks has been found in Abbeville District on the 1850 census. Considering their ages shown in 1860, we may wonder whether they might have been orphans.]
Anderson District, South Carolina --1860 Census
"The 42d Regiment," Post Office: Pierce Town
Page 315A. Census taken by M. L. McCoy on July 14,1860
993-943 Elrod George G. 55 M Farmer $800- $400 SC
  " Elizabeth 46 F     SC
  " Margaret 18 F     SC
  " Adam 16 M Farm laborer   SC
  " Philip 15 M "   SC
  " George 13 M     SC
  " Mary 12 F     SC
  " Thomas 9 M     SC
  " Richard 8 M     SC
  " Jane 5 F     SC
  " Emma 2 F     SC
  Sparks Tabitha 71 F   $100 SC
[Note: Tabitha Sparks was shown as "Cannot read or write." The Elrod children named Adam, George, and Thomas were shown as "Attended school." Tabitha Sparks was the widow of Aaron (Aron) Sparks who had died between 1850 and 1860. When the 1850 census had been taken of Anderson District (see the Quarterly of December 1986, Whole No.136, p.2993), Aaron and Tabitha Sparks were shown as the only persons named Sparks in Anderson District. Tabitha's age had been given as 60 in 1850; she was shown as a native of South Carolina in 1850 as well as in 1860. Aaron Sparks had been shown as 64 years old and a native of North Carolina in 1850. His occupation had been given as "Shoemaker." No one named Sparks appeared as head of a household on the 1840 census of Anderson District. We may wonder whether Tabitha was related to the Elrod family with whom she was living in 1860.
Charleston District, South Carolina --1860 Census
Charleston City, 4th Ward. Post Office: Charleston
Page 336. Census taken on June 20, 1860, by E. P. Gaillard.
555-507 Mackie E. 25 F/B     SC
  " Hariet 10 F/W     SC
  " Cora 5 F/W     SC
  Sparks Betty 26 F/W     GA
  Simons Wro. F. 40 M/W Printer   SC
  " Mary 10 F/W     SC
[Note: We have been unable to identify Betty Sparks. When the 1850 census was taken in Charleston District and city, the only Sparks household found was that headed by Robert Sparks, age 39 (thus born ca. 1810), a carpenter, shown as having been born in South Carolina. His wife was shown in 1850 as Mary Sparks, age 39; living in their household (family) were Jane Sparks, age 16, and Thomas Sparks, age 13; both were natives of South Carolina.]
Charleston City, 6th Ward. Post Office: Charleston
Page 430A. Census taken June 9, 1860, by John Zernow [?]
328-373 Thorn Rebecca 38 F/B Dress maker $2000- $1,000 SC
  Sparks Charles 12 M/B     SC
  " Thomas a. 7 M (")   SC
  " James 5 M (")   SC
  Carmand Francis 14 M (")   SC
[Note: We have been unable to identify the three Sparks children in this household. We wonder whether Rebecca Thorn could have been the mother not only of the children named Sparks, but of Francis Carmand as well. This was obviously a free, black, household.]
Darlington District, South Carolina --1860 Census
Post Office: Darlington Court House
Page 234. Census taken on June 1, 1860, by Wm. H. Wingate
234-234 Sparks Jane 67 F   $6,000- $44,600 Scotland
  Lide A. S. 23 M Planter $20,000- $50,478 SC
  " M. M. 19 F     MS
[Note: A. S. Lide and M. M. Lide were shown as having been married during the previous census year (between June 1, 1859, and May 31, 1860.) "Jane" was apparently a nickname for Janette. She was a widow of Alexander Sparks who had been shown as the only head of a household named Sparks in Darlington District when the 1850 census was taken. His gravestone in the Welch Neck Baptist Cemetery at Society Hill in Darlington District gives his date of birth as September 27, 1780, and the date of his death as January 29, 1857. His portrait, painted by William Harrison Scarbrough, was photographed for us by a descendant, Federal Judge John A. Jamison (now deceased); we reproduced it on the cover of the Quarterly for September 1992. His wife, Janette (McKearly) Sparks, a native of Scotland, had been born in 1791 and died in 1871. Alexander Sparks's parents had been 9.1.1 Daniel Sparks (1740-1810), a native of Spottsylvania County, Virginia, and Martha (Pearce) Sparks (1762-1853). (See the Quarterly of December 1962, Whole No.40, for a record of this branch of the Sparks family.)

[In his will, dated May 4, 1852, Alexander Sparks had left his wife, whom he named as "Jennet, " his "mansion house at Society Hill" along with 100 acres of land, 20 slaves, the family carriage, carriage horses, and "my coachman, Robert," plus $20,000. As seen in the household enumerated on the 1860 census of Jane (or Janette) Sparks, age 67, she was credited with land valued at $6,000 and personal property valued at $44,600, much of which was doubtless based on the worth of her 24 slaves. It is probable that 23-year-old A. S. Lide was a grandson of Jane, her daughter, Elizabeth, having been married to Thomas P. Lide. Elizabeth, eldest child of Alexander and Janette (or Jane), was born in 1812 and died in 1878 according to her grave stone in the Welch Neck Cemetery. To her, Alexander left his 600-acre "Swiper Plantation" in Marlboro District, as well as a 2, 000-acre tract called "Piney Woods on both sides of Camden Road, about 4 miles from Society Hill." To his daughter, Margaret Jane, wife of Col. Isaac D. Wilson, Alexander left the "Butler Plantation in the part of Welch Neck in Marlboro District. "

[In his will dated May 4, 1852, Alexander Sparks also left to his daughter, Margaret Jane, wife of Col. Isaac D. Wilson, "32 negroes--also the Plantation called Red Hill on the road leading to Marion Courthouse, about 7 miles below my Ferry over the Great Pee-Dee," comprising 3,000 acres. To his son, Samuel, he left "the Ferry Plantation & several tracts adjoining in Marlboro District known as the Hawes Tract, the McIver, the Wilds & the Gonohoy tracts, also 200 acres in Chesterfield, called Dukeville, with Mill, etc. & 30 slaves." To his granddaughter, Alicia Mary Sparks, he left $25,000 "in trust, she being under 21, and the only child of my dec'd. son, Wm. A. Sparks." This son, William Alexander Sparks, had been born on October 4, 1817. He attended Columbia College and, in 1834, entered Yale University. He then studied medicine at the Medical College of South Carolina at Charleston and subsequently in Paris. President Polk appointed Dr. Sparks as Consul at Venice in 1845, where he died from Asiatic cholera on August 18, 1849. He had been married to Alicia Middleton (born in 1842), and their only child, Marie Alicia Sparks, had been born on March 25, 1848.

[The son of Alexander and Janette (or Jane) Sparks named Samuel Sparks, died on June 24, 1853, without issue, and on March 25, 1854, Alexander added a codicil to his will providing that the property he had devised to "my said late beloved son, Samuel Sparks" be divided between his two sisters, Elizabeth Lide and Margaret Jane Wilson. He also added $5,000 to the trust fund for his granddaughter, Alicia Jane Sparks, and he added more slaves for his wife.

[Alexander Sparks also directed in his will that his two sons-in-Iaw, Thomas P. Lide and Isaac D. Wilson, serve as executors of his estate. (See Darlington District Will Book 10, p.326 +.)

[Both of the Sparks daughters, with at least some of their children, appeared in households headed by their husbands on the 1860 census of Darlington District. The occupation of both Thomas Lide and Issac Wilson was recorded as "Planter," a title commonly used in the Southern States for a wealthy gentleman farmer, i.e., a large land and slave owner.

[Thomas P. Lide was shown (see p.390 of the Darlington census of 1860) as 50 years of age, with real estate valued at $51,000 and personal estate (mainly slaves) as $126,245. Because he owned property, also, in Marlboro, he was shown there as having land valued at $31,000 and additional slaves valued at $69,400. His family was listed with him only in Darlington District, however. His wife, Elizabeth D. Lide, was shown as 47 years old. There were then three children still at home:

Sons L. W. Lide, age 21, and W. R. Lide, age 15; also one daughter, E. C. Lide, age 10. All three were shown as having attended school in the previous census year. All had been born in South Carolina.

[We believe that it was an older son of Thomas P. and Elizabeth D. Lide named A. S. Lide, age 23, who was living with Jane Sparks (his grandmother) when the 1860 census was taken. Married during the past year, A. S. Lide was already a rich man at age 23, with land valued at $20,000 and personal property (largely slaves) valued at $50,478 in Darlington District.

[Isaac D. Wilson, called "Col." on the 1860 census, was living with his wife, Margaret Jane Sparks, near Margaret's mother in Darlington District. Still living at home were whom we assume to have been the Wilsons' childen: I. D. Wilson, age 25: and James A. Wilson, age 19; along with daughter M. E. Wilson, age 14. Isaac D. Wilson's wealth was recorded on the census in real estate, and $107,800 in personal estate in Darlington District, while in Marlboro District his land there was valued at $55,500 and his personal property, primarily in slaves, was recorded as $78,600. With the parts of this plantation (with the Pee-Dee River dividing them), Col. Wilson owned a total of 181 slaves thereon, for whom he provided 10 slave houses.
Page Surname First Name Age Sex Occupation Worth Birthplace
Greenville District, South Carolina 1860 Census
Town of Greenville.
Post Office: Greenville. JAIL
Page 408A. Census taken by M. D. Dickey on October 16, 1860.
2155-2092 Gossett Fielder 43 M Jailer $1000- $1800 SC
  " Sabring 44 F     SC
  " John J. 18 M Blacksmith   SC
  " Rudolphus 16 M Bricklayer   SC
  " Louisa 12 F     SC
  Gossett Mary A. 4 F     SC
  Wills H 65 M [See below. ]   SC
  Oburler George J. 33 M [See below]   Germany
  Johnson W. P. 22 M     SC
  Dalton L. H. 38 M     NC
  Satterfield Jackson 28 M [See below]   SC
  Daulton Martha 35 F [See below]   NC
  Jennings Jane 30 F     SC
  Sparks B. O. 23 M [See below.]   SC
  Hampton James 24 M [See below.]   NC
[Note: The reasons for some of the inmates being confined in the Greenville jail in 1860 were listed on the census as follows: Herald Wills, "Incendarys" ; George J. Oburler, "Arson"; Jackson Satterfield, "Assault & Battery" ; Martha Daulton, "Disturbing peace"; B. O. Sparks, "Keeping disorderly House; " and James Hampton, "Keeping disorderly House. " It appears that Fielder Gossett, the town's jailer, and his family had living quarters in the town's jail.]
Town of Greenville. Post Office: Greenville
Page 420A. Census taken by M. D. Dickey on October 19,1860.
2350-2350 McKay Robt. 43 M Ordinary $13,800- $11,300 Scotland
  " Octivia 34 F     SC
  " Eliza 7 F     SC
  Daniel Lilly M. 21 F Music teacher   NC
  " Sophy M. 18 F Music teacher   NC
  Bowen F. E. 30 F Tutoress   GA
  Adams L. S. 20 M Student   SC
  Sparks J. C. 18 M Student   SC
  Harris F. E. 21 M Student   LA
  Rice Margaret 46 F Tutoress $3,555 SC
  " James A. 22 M Lawyer   SC
  Brownwell George 15 M Student   SC
  Anderson Charles 15 M Clerk   England
  Grogan John 23 M Carpenter $1200- $800 SC
[Note: It appears that Robt. and Octavia McKay operated a rooming house in the town of Greenville and that J. C. Sparks was a roomer there while going to school. As seen, he and B. O. Sparks were the only persons named Sparks in Greenville District in 1860. Neither, however, has been found on the 1850 census of South Carolina; see the Sparkses found on the 1850 census of South Carolina in the Sparks Quarterly of December 1986, Whole No.137.The fact that both were listed only with their initials makes the identification of them even more difficult. On the 1850 census of Greenville District, however, there were two Sparks households, see page 2994. Both were headed by men named William Sparks.

[The elder William Sparks was shown as 40 years old in 1850 and a native of North Carolina. His wife, Lethia Sparks, a native of Virginia, was also age 40. Of the 7 children then living in their household, the first 5, ranging in age from 19 to 6, were reported as having been born in North Carolina, while the last two, age 7 and 4, had been born in South Carolina. When the 1860 census of South Carolina was taken, this family was living in Spartanburg District: for further information see page 5658 of the present issue of the Quarterly.

[The younger William Sparks shown as heading a household on the 1850 census of Greenville District ( County), age 25, with wife Sarah, age 23, and children named Lewis, age 4, and John, age 1, has not been found on the 1860 census of South Carolina.]
Laurens District, South Carolina--1860 Census
Post Office: Clinton
Page 308. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 25, 1860.
1390-1362 Sparks Drury 35 M Farmer $125 SC
  " S. 33 F     SC
  " E. A. 14 F     SC
  " T. T. 10 M     SC
  " S. J. 6 F     SC
  " A. E. 2 F     SC
Post Office: Martins Depot
Page 309. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 25, 1860.
1407-1379 Sparks T. 32 M Carpenter $1,000 SC
  " Mary 35 F     SC
  " Susan 7 F     SC
Post Office: Reynosa
Page 324. Census taken by J. W. Motte on July 3, 1860.
1669-1632 Sparks Garey 35 M Farmer   SC
  " Mary 30 F     SC
  " "Infant" 3/12 M     SC
Post Office: Tylersville
Page 335A Census, taken by J. S. Motte on August 3, 1860.
1857-1821 Sparks Jesse 46 M [No occupation given]   SC
  " Elizh 26 F     SC
  " M. E. 12 F     SC
  " James 10 M     SC
  " John 8 M     SC
  " M. L. 4 F     SC
Post Office: Cold Water
Page 350. Census taken by J. W. Motte on August 13,1860
2112-2050 Martin J. 56 M Farmer $1200- $4,000 SC
  " M. 59 F     SC
  Sparks M.M. 7 F [Attended school previous year.]   SC
[Note: We believe that the four men named Sparks who headed households in Lauren District (County) when the 1860 census was taken were closely related to one another] We believe, also, that they were descendants of a Zachariah Sparks who had appeared on the 1830 census as head of a household there. In fact, it appears that there were as many as four men named Zachariah Sparks in as many generations who lived in the Laurens District area, the first having died during the American Revolution. (See the article entitled "Zachariah Sparks, died ca.1781, of South Carolina," in the Quarterly of September 1961, Whole No.35.) We believe he was the father of the Zachariah Sparks who transferred his membership from the Padgett's Creek Church in 1835 to the Cedar Springs Baptist Church located about 10 miles southeast from the town of Spartanburg. Zachariah was buried there. His gravestone gives his birth date as January 12, 1756, and his death date as April 19, 1852.

[When the 1850 census was taken in Laurens District, a William Sparks, age 60, a native of South Carolina, was shown as heading a household that included his wife, Sarah, age 50, as well as two daughters: Sarah, age 17, and Frances, age 14. This William Sparks, probably a son of the above Zachariah, died on April 9, 1859, a year prior to the taking of the 1860 census. Claude E. Sparks (mentioned earlier in this article) found William IS date of death among the papers settling his estate in Laurens County. Those papers also reveal the names of five of the children of William and Sarah, including Drury Sparks who headed a household on the 1860 census of Lauren District. The others were Zachariah Sparks, probably named for his grandfather; Sarah Sparks, Jr., named for her mother; Fannie Sparks (nickname for Frances); an Elizabeth Sparks, who married John McIlainey. (See the note following the 1860 census of Union District, page 5662, for further comment on this family.)

[The records of Padgett's Creek Baptist Church, as seen on the map on page 5660 of the present issue of the Quarterly, located in Union District near its boundary line with Laurens District, reveal that William Sparks and Sarah, his wife, had been received as members on the first Sunday in June 1832. Their daughter, Elizabeth, was received as a member on August 18, 1832. In February 1842, William Sparks was "excluded" from membership, but he was restored in the following August. He was "excluded" again, however, in January 1844, the reason being "for thretning [sic] Wm. Lamb of being a moth in his garment as long as he lived there and wishing others in hell and for drinking to much." William Sparks was restored "to fellowship" in July 1848, and "was granted a letter of dismission the same day."
Lexington District, South Carolina--1860 Census
"The Vicinity of Steedmans." Post Office: Steedmans
Page 465. Census taken by B. I. Hayes on August 4, 1860.
1296-1248 Sparks James 60 M Day labourer   Lexington
  " Nancy 59 F     Lexington
  "   Lustacia 45 F   Lexington
  " Salina 14 F     Lexington
  " James 10 M     Lexington
[Note: This census taker, B. I. Hayes, recorded the name of the district in which each native of South Carolina had been born rather than simply the state. However, no one named Sparks has been found on any earlier census for Lexington District. We have no further information for this James Sparks and his family.]
Marlboro District, South Carolina--1860 Census
Bennettsville. Post Office: Bennettsville
Page 166A. Census taken by Jas. H. Dolton on July 16,1860.
411-411 Sparks A. D. 26 M Farmer $12450-$36382 SC
  " Carrie D. 20       SC
  " Samuel 1       SC
Page 181. Census taken by Jas. H. Dolton on August 24, 1860.
649-649 Sparks Samuel 72 M Farmer $62300- $186010 SC
  " Ann H. 67 F     SC
  Keitt Mrs. Sue 26 F     SC
  " Anna 2/12 F     Washington, DC
[Note: Samuel Sparks, shown above, age 72, was a son of Daniel and Martha (Pearce); Sparks; he was a brother of Alexander Sparks (1780-1857) whose widow, Jane Sparks, was shown on the 1860 census of Darlington District, South Carolina. (See page 5648 of the present issue of the Quarterly) A record of this branch of the Sparks family was published in the Quarterly of December 1962, Whole No.40. Information regarding Samuel Sparks may be found in that issue of the Quarterly, beginning on page 693. t [Samuel Sparks was born March 21, 1787, on his father's plantation located on the Welch Neck, in the bend of the river in what became Marlboro District in 1798. It was in Marlboro District that Samuel died on September 19, 1878. He had been married (first) to a Miss Allison. She died within a few years of their marriage after bearing a son named Charles Sparks, who also died young. On July 11, 1822, Samuel Sparks married (second) Ann Harry who had been born June 22,1793. Ann died in November 1870. She was shown, age 67, with Samuel, on the 1860 census, above.

[The "Mrs. Sue H. Keitt" and infant daughter, Anna Keitt, living with Samuel and Ann Sparks in 1860, were their daughter and granddaughter. Sue, a nickname for Susanna, was the wife of Laurence Massillon Keitt, then a member of the United States Congress. He and Susannah were the parents of two daughters, but only the daughter named Anna survived childhood; she did not marry. Following is a brief biography of Laurence Keitt appearing in Appleton's Cyclopaedia of American Biography, Vol. 111, 1888, p.504:

Keitt, Laurence Massillon, congressman, born in Orangeburg district, South Carolina, 4 October 1824; d. in Richmond, Virginia, 4 June 1864. He was graduated at the College of South Carolina in 1843, and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He was in the legislature in 1848, was chosen to congress in 1852 as a state-rights Democrat, and served until his withdrawal in December, 1860, to become a delegate to the secession convention of South Carolina. He was a member of the provisional Confederate congress in Montgomery, Alabama, in 1861, and was conspicuous in forming the provisional and permanent Confederate constitution. In 1862 he joined the Confederate army as colonel of the 20th South Carolina volunteers, and was mortally wounded, at the head of his regiment, at the battle of Cold Harbor, dying in Richmond the next day.

[Alexander Dottridge Sparks, recorded as "A. D. Sparks" by the census taker in 1860 (see previous page), was the only son of Samuel and Ann (Harry) Sparks. He was born in 1829 and died in 1894, spending his entire life in Marlboro District (County), except when performing military service. He was married on November 20, 1856, to Caroline Middleton Dudley, daughter of the Hon. Christopher William and Rebecca Powe (Robeson) Dudley. She had been born June 3, 1838, at Bennettsville, South Carolina, and died there on June 23, 1911. Alexander D. Sparks was a planter on the Pee Dee River; he served in the Mexican War and held a commission in the U. S. Navy. Later, he served as an officer in the Confederate Army, organizing and equipping his own Company I, South Carolina Volunteers (Cavalry)." He and Rebecca were the parents of seven children, six of whom lived to have children of their own.
Spartanburg District, South Carolina--1860 Census
Northern Division. Post Office: Bivingsville
Page 217. Census taken by Jno. Earle BoMarch on June 20, 1860.
286-286 Spark Sewart 24 M Farm laborer   SC
  " Mary 20 F     SC
[Note: Sewart and Mary both shown as unable to read & write, and both shown as married within the census year. See Note below.]
Northern Division. Post Office: Bivingsville
Page 230A. Census taken by Jno. Earle BoMarch on July 12, 1860.
494-494 Sparks Stewart 30 M Farm Laborer   SC
  " Mary 20 F     SC
[Note: Both shown as unable to read & write. Note the similarities of the two households shown above. While there are significant differences, there are curious similarities. Were they the same couple, recorded twice by the census taker?]
Town of Spartanburg. Post Office: Spartanburg
Page 305A. Census taken by G. W. H. Legg on June 5, 1860.
54-54 McFarland John 43 M Master Mason $3,800-$1,200 NC
  " Margaret C. 35 F     NC
  " Martha L. 14 F (Attended school previous year)   NC
  " Mary D. 11 F " " " "   NC
  " Jane G. 8 F " " " "   NC
  " Elizabeth A. 5 F " " " "   SC
  " Susan A. 3 F     SC
  " Margaret C. 1 F     SC
  Sparks Matthew 20 M Mason apprentice   SC
  Suintzer William 14 M " "   SC
  Alexander Martin 19 M Bricklayer   NC
  Brown Ransen 25 M "   SC
  Patterson J. 33 M Laborer   SC
  Brean [?] William J. 40 M Master Carpenter $1,800-$2000 NC
  " Malinda S. 30 F     SC
  " Fany M. 4 F     SC
Southern Division. Post Office: Spartanburg C.H
Page 392. Census taken by G. W. H. Legg on September 19, 1860.
1341-1341 Sparks Thos. 65 M Tenant $200 SC
  " Jerusha [?] 49 F     SC
  " George C. 15 M Laborer   SC
  " Thos. J. 13 M     SC
  " Miles F. 11 M     SC
  " Docter 9 M (Attended school previous year)   SC
  " Frances E. 7 F " " " "   SC
  " Eliza 5 F " " " "   SC
  " Josephus R. 2 M     SC
  " Lulu B 1 F     SC
Southern Division. Post Office: Mt. Lebanon
Page 423A. Census taken by G. W. H. Legg on September 25,1860.
1819-1819 Sparks Wm. 51 M Tnnent [sic] $125 NC
  " Lethe 49 F     VA
  " Dulcina 22 F     NC
  " Wm. 20 M     NC
  " Caroline 17 F     NC
  " Milton 12 M     SC
  " Angeline 9 F     SC
  " Jno. [?] L. 6 M     SC
[Note: Wm. Sparks, age 51, was shown as unable to read or write; also, Austin and Sarah F. Sparks, shown below, were unable to read or write]
Southern Division. Post Office: Wallace Factery [?]
Page 427. Census taken by G. W. H. Legg on September 29,1860.
1872-1872 Sparks Austin 28 M Laborer $25 SC
  " Sarah F. 18 F     SC
  " Margt. C. 13 F     SC
  " Auchm [?] M. 10 (M     SC
  " Anna [?] J. 8 F     SC
[Note: As noted earlier, following the listing of Sparkses in Greenville District (page 5651), a William Sparks who was a native of North Carolina, age 40, was shown on the 1850 census of Greenville District with his wife "Lethia." She was a native of Virginia. Their children, living at home in 1850, were recorded as: Osany [?], a male age 19; Louisa, age 16; Calvin, age 12; Ducenda, age 10; William, age 9; Letha, age 7; and Milton, age 4. The eldest 5 of these children were shown in 1850 as having been born in North Carolina, while the latter two had been born in South Carolina, suggesting that the family had made the move ca. 1842. When the 1860 census was taken, William and Lethe (as her name was spelled by the 1860 census taker) had moved to adjoining Spartanburg District. Because these two South Carolina census records (1850 and 1860) indicate that William and his wife must have been living in North Carolina when the 1840 census had been taken, we believe that, based on research on the 1840 census, it had been in Rutherford County, North Carolina, that this family had lived before moving to Greenville District, and then, prior to 1860, to Spartanburg District. It is significant that Rutherford County, North Carolina, is bordered on its southern line by both Greenville and Spartanburg's northern boundaries. The move from Rutherford County to Greenville District would have been a short one even though they crossed a state line to do so.

[The results from a thorough search for Sparks households in the 1840 census of North Carolina were published in the Quarterly of September 1972, Whole No. 79, pages 1510-1512. While only the names of the heads of households were recorded in 1840, with the members of each simply enumerated in age categories f thereafter, there was only one William Sparks found on the 1840 census of North Carolina having a wife and family with compatible ages appearing on the 1850 and 1860 censuses in Greenville and Spartanburg Districts, that being the William Sparks shown as age 30 to 40, in Rutherford County, North Carolina.

[The household of William Sparks on the 1840 census of Rutherford County. North Carolina, was reported as follows:

Sparks. Wm. age 30 to 40
Female (wife) age 20 to 30
2 Male children age 5 to 10
1 Male child age under 5 1 Female child age 5 to 10
1 Female child age under 5
[Note: There were four other Sparks households in Rutherford County, North Carolina, when the 1840 census was taken. They were:

Thomas Sparks. age 20 to 30
Barnet Sparks. age 20 to 30
William Sparks. age 50 to 60
Am. P. Sparks. age 20 to 30

[When the 1850 census was taken in Rutherford County. Only one Sparks household was recorded. that of Calvin Sparks. age 53 and a native of North Carolina; he had real estate valued at $337; he was a farmer. His wife. Susan Sparks, was 42, and they had daughters: Eliza J. Sparks, age 7, and M. R. Sparks, age 4.]
Union District. South Carolina--1860
Post Office: Goshen Hill
Page 190. Census taken by T. J. Harris on June 6, 1860.
93-79 Sparks Carpenter 38 M Farmer $1200-$250 SC
  " Margaret 27 F     SC
94-80 Sparks Jesse 45 M Farmer   SC
  " Mary 45 F     SC
  " Mary 15 F     SC
Post Office: Cross Keys
Page 191. Census taken by T. J. Harris on June 6, 1860.
114-97 Sparks John 60 M Farmer   SC
  " Unicy 50 F     SC
  " Tilmon 39 M Farm Laborer "Dumb" SC
  " Mary 39 F   "Dumb" SC
  " Coleman 26 M   "Dumb" SC
  " Nancy 17 F     SC
Post Office: Cross Keys.
Page 191A. Census taken by T. J. Harris on June 6.1860.
120-101 Sparks Levi 33 M Farmer $1200-$100 SC
  " Martha 24 F     SC
  " Jesse 3 M     SC
  " Naomie 5mo F     SC
Post Office: Cross Keys
Page 192. Census taken by T. J. Harris on June 6,1860.
134-113 Sparks Sarah 60 F     SC
  " Sarah 26 F     SC
  " Diana 22 F     SC
  " William 8 M     SC
Post Office: Cedar Grove
Page 214A. Census taken by T. J. Harris on June 28,1860
507-436 Sparks Woby [Holly] 56 F Farmer   SC
  " John 26 M Farmer $2,300- $3,000 SC
  " Susan 30 F     SC
  " Martha 16 F     SC
  " Jane 9 F     SC
  " Jessee 14 M     SC
508-437 Sparks Barham 29 M Farmer $1,600- $1,000 SC
  " Elizabeth 26 F     SC
  " Delia 4 F     SC
  " Florence 2 F     SC
  " Octavia 1 F     SC
[Note: The handwriting of this census taker, T. J. Harris, is very difficult to read, and on the census the name Barham looks like "Basom, " while Florence looks like" Casin." From other sources, we have learned the correct spelling of these names and have corrected them in this transcription. The grave stones for Barham Sparks and his wife, Elizabeth, in the Fairforest Cemetery in Union County, reveal that Barham was born January 7, 1830, and died on December 4, 1900. Elizabeth was born May 10,1834, and died on November 20, 1899.]
Post Office: Cedar Bluff [sic]
Page 215. Census taken by T. H. Harris on June 28, 1860.
519-448 Sparks William 58 M Farmer $2300- $3,000 SC
  " Mary 55 F     SC
  " Amand [sic] 18 F     SC
Post Office: Cedar Bluff
Page 241. Census taken by T. J. Harris on July 17, 1860.
927-832 Boyd John 50 M Carpenter   SC
  " Louisa 30 F     SC
  " Cansadia 16 F     SC
  " Vrgena [?] 13 F     SC
  Sparks Catharine 60 F     SC
[Note: Both John and Louisa Boyd were shown as unable to read and write. The Catharine Sparks living in the Boyd household was probably the daughter of Zachariah Sparks, whose gravestone is in Cedar Springs Cemetery about 10 miles southeast from Spartanburg (born January 12, 1756, died April 16, 1852). Zachariah, age 96, and Catharine, age 55, were living with a William Lawson family in Union County when the 1850 census was taken (see page 2996 of the Quarterly).]
Post Office: West Springs
Page 246. Census taken by T. J. Harris on July 19, 1860.
1009-912 Sparks William 22 M Farm Manager   SC
  " Mary 18 F     SC
  " Hirum 6mo M     SC
Post Office: Gondies Mill
Page 283A. Census taken by T. J. Harris on August 17,1860.
1586-1472 Sparks Junius 22 M Farm Manager   SC
  " Nancy 17       SC
  " Rebecca 6mo       SC
Post Office: Drayton Rille
Page 296. Census taken by T. J. Harris on August 23,1860.
1772-1641 Sparks Sarah 39 F     SC
  " William 16 M Farm Laborer   SC
  " John 13 M     SC
  " George 60 M "M" [meaning Mulatto]   SC
Post Office: Drayton
Page 297 Census taken by T. J. Harris on August 24,1860
1789-1658 Sparks 78.5 Shelton 48 M Farmer $500 -$920 SC
  " Rebecca 49 F     SC
  " Jula [Julia] 17 F     SC
  " Nancy 16 F     SC
  " James 14 M     SC
  " Thomas 12 M     SC

Note: In the Quarterly of March 1960, Whole No.29, we published an article entitled "John Sparks (ca.1755-1826) of Union County, South Carolina." A number of his descendants were still living there when the 1860 census was taken. In tracing the ancestry of 29. John and Elizabeth Sparks, we have benefited greatly from the research done for us many years ago by a great-great-grandson of John and Elizabeth, Claude E. Sparks. He was born on December 11,1897, at Cross Keys in Union District. He died there on February 4, 1983. Claude descended from a son of John and Elizabeth named 29.4 William J. Sparks. His correspondence with the present writer extended from January 1956 to within a few years of his death. He did not marry, and where his family records, including William J. Sparks's family Bible containing a record of William Sparks's children may be today is unknown.

29. John Sparks had been born ca. 1755 in Virginia. We have not discovered his parentage. He served in the American Revolution as a member of the South Carolina Militia commanded by Colonel Thomas Brandon in 1780. Sparks and Brandon were near neighbors in Union District; Brandon testified on John's behalf when he "applied for a pension in his old age. (Proof of John Sparks's service in the Revolution was abstracted for publication in the March 1960 Quarterly cited above.)

John Sparks and his family lived on the north side of Tiger River in Union District. (See the map on page 5660.) It is probable that he married Elizabeth ca. 1780. Because the Sparks and Prince families were closely associated with each other in Union District, we wonder whether Elizabeth's maiden name might have been Prince. John and Elizabeth became members of the Padgett's Creek Baptist Church on August 16, 1800, being "received by experience." (Claude E. Sparks was the historian of this church, and he searched its records for us.)

On the map of Union District (County) on page 5660, it can be seen that this church is located on Charles Road in Cross Keys Township; it was founded in 1734. John's farm on the north side of Tyger River was across from that of Edward Prince and about two miles from Col. Brandon's farm on Fairforest Creek. An early Union District Court record shows that John Sparks was a member of a grand jury that was convened there on November 1,1803.

John Sparks's entry on the 1810 census of Union District shows that his wife, Elizabeth, was then still living, but she died before the summer of 1815 when John married (second) Joyce Putnam, the widow of James Putnam. A marriage contract was drawn up and signed by both on August 10, 1815, agreeing that the property of John and Joyce should be kept separate for the inheritance of their respective children. (See pp.451-53 for a transcription of this document in the Quarterly of March 1960, cited above.)

John Sparks died in Union County in 1826. His second wife, Joyce, was then still living. There were no children from this marriage. John Sparks and his first wife, Elizabeth, were the parents of four known children, of whom we have record:

29.1 Sarah Sparks, born ca. 1782;Sarah Sparks was married between 1800 and 1810 to Carpenter Simmons. Following Sarah's death in 1837, Carpenter Simmons married 29.4 Susannah Sparks, Sarah's sister. There were no children born to either of these daughters of John and Elizabeth Sparks.
29.2 Mitchell O. Sparks, born ca. 1785;
29.3 William J. Sparks, born August 5, 1790; and
29.4 Susannah Sparks, born ca. 1795.

29.2 Mitchell O. Sparks, son of John and Elizabeth Sparks, was born ca. 1785 and died in 1836. He married Holly Boatman, a daughter of Jesse and Sarah Boatman. She was still living when the 1860 census was taken in Union District. Shortly before he died, Mitchell Sparks made his will, dated July 14, 1836. (Recorded in Union District Will Book B, p.224.) Describing himself as of "Sound and disposing mind & memory, but weak in body," Mitchell left a third of his personal property to "my Wife Holly Sparks, during her natural Life or widowhood--and after her decease or marriage to be equally distributed among my Children hereinafter named."

Mitchell also prescribed that his wife, Holly, should have possession of "my family of Negroes, Lands &c and under the consideration of her raising & supporting the Children--until the Eldest of my children become of age & calls for a portion of my Estate, then all my Negroes & their increase to be [by] Judicial men appraised & an equal distribution be made between my Daughters Nancy, Elizabeth, Susan, Sarayann & Mary, & my Sons byram and John Franklin.", He appointed his brother, William J. Sparks, to serve as executor of his estate, calling him "my Friend." He signed his will by mark, with the following three witnesses: Jason Greer, Henry Garrett, and William Lee.

Following is a brief record of each of the children of Mitchell Sparks:

29.2.1 Nancy Sparks, born ca. 1825, married Cargill Hobo. His name was spelled Cargall on the 1860 census (p.215A, Union District) and as Cargal on the slave schedule, where he was shown as owning one slave, a female, age 17, described as black. Cargill Hobo, who had been born ca. 1825 in South Carolina, was a teacher according to the 1860 census. Nancy and his children in 1860 were: Sarah Hobo, age 9; Mary Hobo, age 7; and Jeremiah Hobo, age 2.

29.2.2 Elizabeth Sparks, according to her gravestone in the Padgett's Creek Church Cemetery was born January 8, 1826, and died on February 4, 1885; she married Joshua Willborn; he had been born in South Carolina ca. 1805. He was a farmer according to the 1860 census of Union District. He owned land valued at $6,000 and personal property at $15,000. The slave schedule credited him with 4 slaves, all black (2 males, ages 15 and 16, and 2 females, both 16). The children living in the Willborn household in 1860 were: Sanford Willborn, age 15; Jasper Willborn, age 12 ; Laura Willborn, age 10; William Willborn, age 7 ; Amanda Willborn, age 5; and James Willborn, age 1.

Sanford and Jasper were called "Students" in the occupation column on the census. Considering that Joshua Willborn was considerably older than Elizabeth, we may wonder whether the mother of Sanborn and Jasper might have been an earlier wife of Joshua.

29.2.3 Susan Sparks, born ca. 1830, was still living at home with her mother, Holly Sparks, when the 1860 census was taken, as was her brother, John. (See page 5661 of this issue of the Quarterly.) According to family records, she was married later to Zeb Harnett. A man named A. Z. Harnett, age 72, was living, alone, near Holly Sparks and her family, when the 1860 census was taken.

29.2.4 Sarah Ann Sparks, spelled "Sarayann" in her father's will, was born ca. 1833. She married Charles Harnett according to family records. He was shown (page 214A) on the 1860 census of Union District, age 43, a farmer with land valued at $3500 and personal property at $1,000. He owned no slaves, but Sarah Ann (spelled "Sarian" on the slave schedule) was shown as owner of one slave, a black female, age either 27 or 31 (original blurred). Was she Sarah Ann's inheritance from her father? The children of Charles and Sarah Ann (Sparks) Harnett in 1860 were shown (page 214) as: "Cornilia" Harnett, age 7; James Harnett, age 6; and Amanda Harnett, age 2.

29.2.5 Mary Sparks, born ca. 1836, married Giles Harnett. He had been born ca. 1815; his age was 45 on the 1860 census of Union District (page 211A). He was shown as a "Farm Manager" for a woman named Ann Rice, and he was the one who reported the statistics on the slave schedule for her many slaves. He was also credited with owning 5 black slaves himself--a female, age 20, and 4 children: 3 males ages 7, 6, and 3, and a female, age 2. Under "Giles Harnet's Farm," there was also a black female, age 50. The children of Giles and Mary (Sparks) Harnett in 1860 were shown as a son named "Olores" [?] Harnett, age 5 in 1860, and a daughter named Sophia Harnett, age 7 months.

Mitchell Sparks identified two sons in his will, Hyram and John Franklin Sparks. "Hyram" seems, however, to have been a mispelling of Harham, an error probably made by whoever it was that did the writing of Mitchell's will. Claude E. Sparks, whom we have quoted earlier, was certain that the correct spelling was Harham.

29.2.6 Barham Sparks was born January 7, 1830, and died on December 4, 1900. He married Rosa Elizabeth Hill on January 5, 1853, and, according to Claude E. Sparks, they became the parents of eight children. On the 1860 Census, Harham Sparks appeared with his wife and their first three children, as a household immediately following that of his mother. Barham enlisted in the Confederate Army on November 12, 1861, to serve in Company A of the 18th Cavalry Regiment. The children of Barham and Rosa Elizabeth Sparks, according to Claude E. Sparks, were: Alice Delia Sparks, Florence Elizabeth Sparks, Octavia Sparks, Walter Barham Sparks, Emma Tecora Sparks, Mary Esther Sparks, Mattie Tullulah Sparks, and Lizzie Elinor Sparks.

Rosa Elizabeth Sparks appears to have been called by her middle name as shown on the 1860 census.

29.2.7 John Franklin Sparks, the last child named in the will of Mitchell Sparks, was born ca. 1834. He was living with his mother, Holly Sparks, when the 1860 census was taken. He did not marry. He died on November 21, 1862, while he was a soldier in the Confederate Army. His military record in South Carolina's "War Accounts," lists him as John F. Sparks of Union District.

Holly Sparks, widow of Mitchell, was called "Woby Sparks" on the 1860 census. The census taker probably misunderstood her name. Two of her and Mitchell's children, Susan and John F, were living with her in 1860. A Martha Sparks, age 16, as also living in Holly's household, then, as were two Sparks children, Jesse, age 14, and Jane, age 9, each both of whom was identified as "student." We have not identified the parentage of Jesse and Jane, although Claude E. Sparks informed the present writer many years ago that Martha Sparks was 8, daughter of Holly, she having been (" born to Holly out of wedlock some eight years following Mitchell Sparks's death, but it was not known who Martha's father may have been, although she took the name, Sparks. Entries in the official records of the Lower Fairforest Baptist Church confirm Martha's illegitimacy.

Holly Sparks had been "received by experience" as a member of this church on July 21, 1832, and a month later, Mitchell O. Sparks was, likewise, "received by experience. " After Holly Sparks gave birth to Martha, she was excluded from membership for "immoral behaviour." On November 24, 1849, however, the church "restored Sister Holly Sparks." Claude also noted that some years later, Martha bore an illegitimate son named Thomas Sparks.

29.3 William J. Sparks, the second son of John and Elizabeth Sparks, was born in Union District on August 5, 1790, according to a record contained in his own family Bible that was inherited by his great-grandson, Claude E. Sparks. William died on January 11, 1877. As shown on the map of Union District (County) on page 5660, William J. Sparks's home was located on the north side of the Tiger River, in what became Bogansville Township. He was still living there, with his second wife, when the 1860 census was taken. His first purchase of land had been in 1822. In this deed, re- corded in Union County Deed Book W, pages 165-66, he was called "William Sparks, son of John." It adjoined land owned by Nevel and Jesse Holcomb and by John Boatman. William J. Sparks served for many years as captain of the local militia.

William J. Sparks was married, first, to Mildred Boatman, daughter of Jesse and Sarah Boatman. She was a sister of Holly Boatman, wife of William J.'s brother, Mitchell Sparks. Mildred had been born on August 18, 1792, in Union District. She died in 1833 a few months following the birth of her ninth child. Within a year or two, William J. married (second) Mary Lee, who had been born on 23 Jan1803. She was a widow of Thomas Lee. Mary lived until May1, 1862. Two children were born to this latter union.

On October 28, 1858, at age 68, William J. Sparks joined the Lower Fairforest Baptist Church and was baptized. In August 1876, when he was 86 years old, he was sent by this church as a delegate to the Bethel Baptist Association. When he died five months later, he was buried in the Padgett's Creek Church Cemetery beside the grave of his second wife.

The following record of the children of William J. Sparks was copied for us by Claude E. Sparks, from the family Bible of William J. Sparks, the first nine having been born to his union with his first wife, Mildred Boatman, and the last two with that of his second wife, Mary, whose first husband had been Thomas Lee. Claude E. Sparks supplemented the Bible record with his own personal knowledge of these children and grandchildren of William J. Sparks.

29.3.1 John Sparks, born April 23, 1813. He married Amy Bailey, daughter of William Bailey. Both John and Amy apparently died at about the same time in 1844. John's father administered John's estate, and among the bills that he paid was one for two coffins. Information about John and Amy's four daughters was published on page 456 of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly.

29.3.2 Elizabeth Sparks, born April 3, 1816, died April 6, 1896. She married Jonathan Lee. Information regarding their children appeared on page 458 of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly.

29.3.3 Sarah Sparks, born August 24, 1818, died February 10, 1905. She married William Bailey. Information regarding their children appeared in the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly, page 458.

29.3.4 Jesse Sparks, born May 12, 1820, died February 21, 1875. He married Mary Maybery Gibbs; a photograph of them appears on page 459 of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly. They were shown on the 1860 census of Union District with their 15-year-old daughter, Mary Sparks. Jesse was actually 40 years old, although he was reported as 45. He served in the Confederate Army in the Civil War, in Company C of the 18th Infantry Regiment; his age at enlistment was recorded as 35, also in error. He was discharged at Charleston--date not known. Extracts from the obituary for Jesse Sparks, written by C. B. Bobo, follow:

It becomes our painful duty to record the death of one of our most esteemed citizens, Jesse Sparks, who departed this life on the 21st of February 1875, from typhoid pneumonia, in the 55th year of his age. We seldom have occasion to notice the death of a man of such exemplary character... About 26 years ago he made a public profession of Religion, by uniting with Lower Fairforest Church. For nearly 15 years he served as Deacon in New Prospect Church. In the death of Bro. Sparks the church has lost one of its brightest ornaments; Union County, and especially Cross Keys Township, has lost one of its best Citizens..

Jesse and Mary Sparks were the parents of a son and a daughter. James Franklin Sparks, was born in July 1842; he died before his 16th birthday. Mary Louise Sparks, was born June 7, 1845; she married Lemuel J. Bobo. They were the parents of: Jesse F. Bobo and Corrie Bobo.

29.3.5 Carpenter Sparks (often spelled Carpentar), fifth child of William J. and Mildred (Boatman) Sparks, was born September 28, 1822; he died on February 5,1884. On December 14, 1853, he married Margaret Hughey, daughter of Joseph and Mary Hughey. Margaret died on February 5, 1889. They had no children. A photograph of Carpenter appears on page 460 of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly. As can be seen on the 1860 census of Union District, Carpenter and Margaret lived very near Carpenter'! brother, Jesse Sparks.

29.3.6 Hiram Sparks, sixth child of William J. and Mildred (Boatman) Sparks, was born on December 24,1824. We have found no record of Hiram other than his name and date of birth recorded in his father's Bible. He apparently died as a child.

29.3.7 Levi Sparks, seventh child of William J. and Mildred (Boatman) Sparks, was born on September 29,1826, and died on January 4, 1899. He purchased a farm of 113 acres one mile east of Cross Keys on Buncomb Road in 1859, as shown on the map of Union District on page 5660 of this issue of the Quarterly. Several years earlier, Levi had been married to Martha Buchanan. Levi and Martha were the parents of three children, John T. Sparks, died in a fire at the age 5 years, on January 26,1860. Jesse Jones Sparks, born March 3,1857, and Aurelia Naomie Sparks, born on November 15,1859. (She was called Naomie on the 1860 census. )

Martha, Levi's first wife, died on September 11, 1860, before reaching her 27th birthday.

Levi Sparks served in Company C of the 18th Infantry Regiment of the Confederate Army. He was discharged at Charleston, date not known. About a year after the death of his first wife, Levi married (second) Angeline Gibbs, the widow of James Gibbs. Their only child was named Stella Sparks.

About six months following Stella's birth, Angeline died on Christmas day, 1862; she and Levi had been married fewer that two years at her death.

On May 19, 1863, Levi married his third wife, Leannah F. Bobo, a daughter of Kindred and Comfort (Free) Bobo. She had been born on March 21, 1841, and died on September 3, 1898. A photograph of Levi and Leannah can be found on the cover of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly. They were the parents of eight children. Sketches of each of the children of Levi Sparks who lived to adulthood were prepared by Claude E. Sparks and were included in the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly. Here we give information only for his sons, whose children carried on the name Sparks. James N. Sparks, born August 14,1866; died August 22,1902. He married Jessie Jones, and they had one daughter, Nola Sparks. William Mayfield Sparks, born June 6, 1870; died December 14, 1919. He married Jennie Bobo, born April 10,1872; died March 23, 1943, daughter of Barham and Fannie Virginia (Ray) Bobo. They had the following children: Claude E. Sparks, born December 11, 1897; died February 4, 1983. He did not marry. He was the Claude E. Sparks whom we have quoted a number of times in this article. Guy B. Sparks, born December 14. 1901; married (first) Jessie Platt. (second) Ruth McDowell. William J. Sparks, born July 31, 1904; married Sara Sims. Mary Louise Sparks, born August 23, 1910. She married Jack F. Burnett. C. Bobo Sparks, son of Levi and Leannah F. (Bobo) Sparks, was born April 7, 1874; died 1950. He married (first) Annie Dodd; they had no children. He married (second) Cattie Gibbs. They had two children, one of whom died in infancy, the other was Simpson Levi Sparks, born September 11. 1879; died October 16. 1944. He married Lilla Betsil and they were the parents of two children: Mary Lee Sparks and Margaret Simpson Sparks.

29.3.8 Charlotte Sparks, eighth child of William J. and Mildred (Boatman) Sparks, was born April 15. 1829; died on August 15. 1885. She married Robert F. Ray. Information regarding her children appeared on page 462.of the March 1960 issue of the Quarterly.

29.3.9 Carline Sparks, ninth child of William J. Spark's and Mildred (Boatman) Sparks, was born August 25. 1832. She died in infancy.

29.3.10 William T. Sparks, tenth child of William J. Sparks (his first child by his second wife. Mary Lee Sparks). He was born April 11. 1836; died October 20, 1861. His gravestone in Padgett's Creek Baptist Church Cemetery has the inscription: "A volunteer in defense of his country, leaving a wife, one child and many friends to mourn their loss. " He married Mary Bobo. and they were the: parents of one child, a son named Hiram Micajah Sparks. Hiram married Elizabeth Whitesides, and they became the parents of sons named Harry Sparks, William Sparks, Joseph Sparks, James Sparks, Eddie Sparks, and Charley Sparks, all of whom had died by 1960.

29.3.11 Amanda Sparks, eleventh child of William J. Sparks (his second child by his second wife. Mary Lee Sparks), Amanda was born November 16, 1839, and died on March 5.1906. She married Eliphas Bearden, and they were the parents of three daughters, two of whom died in infancy; the third, Annie Bearden, died as a teenager.

78.5 Shelton Sparks. When the 1860 census was taken. Shelton Sparks's land on which he was then living was located in that part of Union District that would be cut off to help form a new county in 1897 to be called Cherokee. Portions of two other counties (formerly called districts) would also be cut off to help form Cherokee; they were Spartanburg and York. (See the map of South Carolina showing its division into districts at the time a gazetteer was published in 1855. reproduced on page 5872 of this issue of the Quarterly.

As shown in our transcription of the 1860 census in South Carolina. Sheldon's wife's name was Rebecca MNU, but we have no clue regarding her maiden name. We also have no knowledge of the household headed by Sarah Sparks just above that of Shelton Sparks on the 1860 census. The Junius Sparks who headed a household near that of Sheldon Sparks was Sheldon's oldest son.

In 1982, we received a letter from Donna Cummins of Walla Walla, Washington, who identified herself as a great-great-granddaughter of Nancy (Sparks) Garner. Nancy (Sparks) Garner, according to Ms. Cummins, was a daughter of Shelton and Rebecca Sparks. Ms. Cummins also sent us a record of the family of Shelton and Rebecca that had been prepared by a Robert A. Ivey. While we cannot vouch for the accuracy of this compilation, it appears to have been done with care. Should this come to the attention of someone who is knowledgeable regarding this branch of the Sparks family, we would be pleased to hear from you. Robert A. Ivey's account follows:

Shelton Sparks was born ca. 1810 and died on March 1, 1864, in Union District, South Carolina. His wife, Rebecca Sparks, was born ca. 1811 and died on March 29,1894.

Shelton Sparks bought 106 acres of land from Samuel and Araminta Jefferies on January 8, 1855. Known as the Cotton Branch Tract, this land had been part of the estate of John Jefferies, on the north side of Gilkey Creek. Shelton Sparks paid $318.00 for the land; he sold it on September 1, 1860, to Elizabeth Linder of Spartanburg County, South Carolina, for $450.00. Shelton Sparks was killed by Samuel Jefferies on March 1, 1864.

Shelton and Rebecca Sparks lived in the El Bethel Baptist Church community of Union.County, South Carolina, for awhile, but later moved to Timberidge. While In the El Bethel Baptist Church Community, Rebecca Sparks was a member of this church. Shelton Sparks and Rebecca had the following children:

78.5.1 Catherine Sparks, born December 15, 1827, died May 10, 1876. She married Thomas Spencer, Jr. (born March 19, 1825, died June 11, 1920), a son of Thomas Spencer, Sr. and Mary ["Polly"] (Sprouse) Spencer. After the death of Catherine (Sparks) Spencer, Thomas Spencer, Jr. married Elizabeth Service, daughter of James and Margaret Service. James Service had come to this country from Ireland. Thomas Spencer, Jr. and his two wives were buried in the Corinth Baptist Cemetery, Gaffney, South Carolina.

78.5.2 Susan Sparks, born August 14, 1833, died September 9, 1901, married (first) Blasingame Kirby (born 1838; died in the 1860s), a son of Terry and Nancy Kirby. Blasingame Kirby was a Confederate soldier and died during the War. Susan Sparks married (second) James Riley Blanton (born August 14,1847, died September 9,1901), a son of David and Jane Blanton. Susan and her two husbands were buried in the Corinth Baptist Cemetery at Gaffney, South Carolina.

78.5.3 Sarah Sparks was born ca. 1836 and had died before 1864.

78.5.4 Junius Sparks, born March 15, 1837; died August 25, 1910, married Nancy Ann Blanton (born February 15, 1844, died December 10, 1912). She was a daughter of David and Jane Blanton. This couple was buried in the Corinth Baptist Cemetery at Gaffney, South Carolina.

78.5.5 Rebecca Sparks, born ca. 1841; died December 14, 1918. She married Henry Sellars; she was buried in the LeMaster family cemetery near Gaffney, South Carolina. Henry Sellars was a Confederate soldier and died during the War Between the States.

78.5.6 Julia Ann Sparks, born in 1843, died March 3, 1919. She did not marry and was buried in an unmarked grave in the Corinth Baptist Cemetery at Gaffney.

78.5.7 Nancy Sparks, born ca. 1844. She married Joseph Garner (born ca. 1843). They moved to Smith County, Texas, between 1870 and 1880.

78.5.8 James W. Sparks, born December 20,1845, and died on May 28,1913. He married Mary Ann Jones (born November 26,1849, died June 2,1939), daughter of William and Amanda Scales Jones. This couple was buried in the El Bethel Baptist Cemetery in Cherokee County, South Carolina. James W. Sparks served in the Confederate Army in the War Between the States.

78.5.9 Frances Sparks, born in 1848, died on September 4, 1917. She married John Franklin Carter (born May 28,1852, died January 8, 1908), a son of Vandyne and Elizabeth (Ward) Carter. John and Frances (Sparks) Carter were buried in the Gilead Baptist Cemetery at Jonesville, South Carolina.

John and Unicy Sparks. We have not succeeded in identifying the family headed by this couple whose post office was Cross Keys according to their listing on the 1860 census of Union District (County). As seen, three of the younger members in their household were called "Dumb" by the census taker, but in the records of the Padgett's Creek Baptist Church, they were called "Mute." If the ages reported on the census for Tilman and Mary (both were shown as 39) were correct, and if that for Unicy was also correct (i.e. 50), Unicy could not have been the mother of Tilman and Mary (at age 11) .The gravestone in the Padgett's Creek Baptist Church Cemetery for Coleman Sparks gives his date of birth as April 9, 1831, meaning that he would have been 29 in 1860, not 26 as was reported on the 1860 census. Unicy (doubtless a nick name for Eunice), could have been Coleman's mother (she would have been 21 in 1831) as well as Nancy's mother.

The present writer is inclined to believe, however, that Eunice ["Unicy"] may have been a second wife of John Sparks and the other of none of his children. For example, an entry in the Padgett's Creek Baptist Church minutes dated October 17, 1857, copied for us by Claude E. Sparks, reads as follows: "The Church met in conference--Granted letters of dismission to Brother John Sparks and his daughter Mary Sparks, a mute; they joined the church about two years earlier." The following sentence was added to this entry later: "This John Sparks died in April 1871, according to our church register."

On October 17, 1858, the following entry was made in the Church's register: "Received into fellowship of the Church by experience, Magary Sparks and Tilman Sparks, a mute." On July 18, 1863, it was recorded: "Received by letter, Sister Unice Sparks." Claude E. Sparks also noted: "Tilman Sparks died in the year 1873, a mute. "

We hope that any reader having knowledge of this family will share any information you may have regarding this couple.]

Sarah Sparks. We believe that the Sarah Sparks, born ca. 1800 according to the Union District census of 1860 with post office at Cross Keys, was the same Sarah Sparks as on the 1850 census, age 50, wife of William Sparks, age 60, in Laurens District (County).We believe that they lived over the line in Laurens District, from adjoining Union District, in 1850. (See the note following the 1860 census on page 5661 in the present issue of the Quarterly.) As we noted there, William Sparks died on April 9, 1859, and his small estate probated in Laurens District. Mentioned in that settlement were his widow, Sarah Sparks, and five of their children: Drury, Zachariah, Sarah, Fanny (nickname for Frances), and Elizabeth (who married John McIlainey).

In the household of William and Sarah Sparks shown on the 1850 census of Laurens District, were Sarah Sparks, age 17, and Frances Sparks, age 14. The daughter named Sarah was still "at home" when the 1860 census was taken (age shown as 26) the other two may have been married by 1860; we cannot identify the Diana Sparks (age 22) nor William (age 8) then living in Sarah's household.

We will not repeat the additional information regarding William and Sarah Sparks given on page 5653.


A map of South Carolina showing its division into Districts (later Counties) at the time the 1860 Census was taken. Reproduced from Fanning's Illustrated Gazetteer of the United States (published in New York by Ensign, Bridgman, and Fanning, 1855).

The slave schedule of Darlington District shows that the census taker, W. H. Wingate, prepared the listing of Jane Sparks's slaves on June 1, 1860 (p. 314).The printed schedule used by all census takers in 1860 for reporting slaves asked for only the following data for each one: Age, Sex, Color (whether Black [ B ] or Mulatto [M]); age was to be estimated, if unknown; note was to be made if a slave was Deaf and dumb, Blind, Insane, or Idiotic. The names of slaves were not to be included. The number of "slave houses" provided by each slave owner was also to be recorded. There was no prescribed order for listing the slaves; it may have been by each of Jane Sparks's 5 slave houses that her 24 slaves were tabulated. They were given in the following order.

55 M B
18 M B
27 F B
6 F B
3 F B
26 F B
7 F B
4 F B
21 M B
18 M B
16 F B
1 F B
2 M B
31 M B
33 F B
11 M B
8 F B
6 M B
3 F B
1 F B

[At the end of the slave schedule for Darlington District, W. H. Wingate calculated that he had found a total of 11,863 slaves in his District, and 2,892 slave houses to domicile them.]

[While Alexander Dottridge Sparks owned a total of 33 slaves, his father, Samuel Sparks, owned 171, with 40 "Slave. Houses," according to the slave schedule of 1860. As was true of his son's slaves, all of Samuel's were recorded as "Black," i.e. "B"; and to conserve space we record them here only according to their age and sex.

Slaves owned by Samuel Sparks (total: 67 males & 104 females)
Age Sex Age Sex Age Sex Age Sex
60 M 17 M 1 F 50 F
34 M 65 M 18 F 22 F
30 M 40 M 16 F 16 F
32 M 36 M 14 F 18 F
26 M 31 M 14 F twins 14 F
18 M 1 M 31 F 12 F
2 M 22 M 15 F 35 F
18 M 20 M 11 F 16 F
7 M 3 M 9 F 35 F
1 M 1 M 4 F 15 F
1 M 55 M 2 F 8 F
4 M 22 M 57 F 14 F
10 M 14 M 34 F 30 F
4 M 12 M 16 F 60 F
3 M 10 M 14 F 32 F
40 M 28 M 12 F 18 F
28 M 23 M 3 F 32 F
13 M 49 M 3/12 F 18 F
1 M 4 M 28 F 32 F
15 M 36 M 7 F 18 F
19 M 35 M 4 F 32 F
17 M 2 M 26 F 7 F
3 M 2/12 M 35 F 5 F
1 M 55 F 36 F 3 F
10 M 38 F 15 F 1 F
9 M 36 F 33 F 6 F
6/12 M 28 F 6 F 40 F
17 M 24 F 60 F 5 F
39 M 22 F 60 F 18 F
21 M 20 F 26 F 45 F
5 M 15 F 11 F 26 F
3 M 13 F 23 F 18 F
6 M 11 F 2 F 2 F
4 M 9 F 18 F 49 F
15 M 7 F 30 F 26 F
14 M 37 F 8 F 1 F
15 M 1 F 1 F 1/12 F
7 M 20 F 28 F 2 F
24 M 4/12 F 11 F 16 F
22 M 18 F 22 F 35 M
16 F 11 F 69 M 8 F
22 F 6/12 M 7 F 4 F
16 M 4 F 69 F    
Total slaves: 171 Males: 67 Females: 104    

[According to the Slave Schedule of Marlboro District in 1860, Alexander D. Sparks then owned 33 slaves with 10 "slave houses. " Each was identified only by age, sex, and color (but without names as directed) as follows:

60 M B
60 M B
60 F B
50 M B
39 M B
30 M B
26 M B
18 M B
15 M B
15 M B
23 M B
24 M B
40 F B
30 F B
22 F B
26 F B
17 F B
17 F B
14 F B
26 F B
12 M B
10 M B
9 M B
7 F B
3 M B
1 M B
4 F B
8 F B
7 F B
4 F B
2 F B
1 M B
1 M B